Belgian Malinois

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belgian malinois portrait
Welcome to the world of Belgian Malinois, a breed that's as majestic as it is energetic! These canine athletes are known for their unparalleled intelligence, agility, and loyalty, making them the ultimate companion for those seeking adventure and fun.

Join us in this comprehensive guide as we explore everything you need to know about this breed, including their appearance, temperament, ideal environment, grooming, exercise requirements, training tips, dietary needs, health concerns, history, and more.

Best For

The Belgian Malinois is an excellent match for individuals or families seeking an intelligent, energetic, and loyal companion. These versatile canines thrive with active, experienced dog owners who can provide them with consistent training, mental stimulation, and ample physical exercise.


OFFICIAL NAMEBelgian Malinois
OTHER NAMESMal, Mechelaar, Mechelse Herder, Belgian Shepherd, Chien de Berger Belge
BREED GROUPHerding Group
HEIGHT22-26 inches
WEIGHT40-80 lbs
LIFESPAN14-16 years
belgian malinois walking on the grass
Photo: Nikiko/Pixabay


The Belgian Malinois is a medium to large-sized breed that exudes an air of strength and elegance. Males typically stand between 24 to 26 inches at the shoulder, while females measure slightly smaller at 22 to 24 inches. Adult males usually weigh between 60 to 80 pounds, and females range from 40 to 60 pounds, giving them a well-proportioned, muscular appearance.

Their bodies are designed for both power and agility. The Malinois has a square-shaped, well-balanced body with a deep chest that extends to the elbow. Their strong, straight back is complemented by a slightly sloping croup and a moderately long tail that reaches the hock when at rest. When in motion, the tail is carried higher, displaying the dog’s confidence and alertness.

The head of the Belgian Malinois is well-chiseled with parallel planes, showcasing their keen intelligence. They have a moderately pointed muzzle, which is equal in length to the flat, well-defined skull. The stop, or transition between the skull and muzzle, is moderate but clearly defined. The nose is black, and the tight, strong jaws exhibit a perfect scissor bite.

One of the most striking features of the Malinois is their expressive, almond-shaped eyes, which range in color from dark brown to almost black. These captivating eyes convey their intelligence, curiosity, and unwavering focus. The high-set ears are triangular in shape and stand erect, adding to their alert and attentive expression.

The coat of the Belgian Malinois is one of its most distinctive features. It is a short, weather-resistant double coat, with a dense, protective undercoat and a straight, slightly harsh outer coat. The coat’s texture provides ample protection against various weather conditions.

The Malinois’ coat color ranges from rich fawn to mahogany, with black-tipped hairs known as “overlay.” A distinguishing feature is the black mask on their face, which extends from the ears and covers the muzzle.

Overall, the Belgian Malinois’ physical characteristics showcase an attractive blend of strength, agility, and elegance, making them a truly remarkable breed. Their distinctive appearance reflects their tireless work ethic and unwavering devotion to their human companions.

belgian malinois crouching while training
Photo: ozgurdonmaz/Getty Images Signature


The Belgian Malinois is a highly intelligent, energetic, and devoted breed with a strong work ethic. Their temperament is often described as confident, alert, and hardworking, making them excellent companions for those who appreciate their versatility and enthusiasm.

Malinois form deep bonds with their human family members, displaying unwavering loyalty and a strong desire to please. They are known to be affectionate and gentle with their loved ones, thriving on praise and positive reinforcement. These dogs crave human interaction and mental stimulation, which means they are happiest when included in daily activities and family routines.

When it comes to children, the Belgian Malinois can make a wonderful playmate and protector, provided they have been socialized and trained properly. It is essential to teach children how to interact respectfully with the dog, as well as supervise their interactions.

Due to their exuberant energy and size, it is recommended to be cautious with younger children, as the dog may accidentally knock them over during playtime. Older children who understand how to treat animals gently are likely to develop strong bonds with their Malinois.

The Malinois’ natural wariness of strangers makes them exceptional watchdogs. They are vigilant and protective, ensuring the safety of their family and property. However, this trait also means that early socialization is crucial to prevent excessive shyness or aggression. Introducing them to various people, environments, and situations from a young age helps them develop into well-adjusted, confident adults.

When it comes to other pets, the Belgian Malinois can coexist peacefully with other dogs and animals if they have been raised together or properly introduced. Their strong prey drive, however, may make them less suitable for homes with small animals such as cats or rabbits. Early socialization and training are key to helping them understand appropriate behavior around other pets.

One unique personality perk of the Belgian Malinois is their incredible focus and determination. They are eager learners who excel at various tasks and activities. This breed is well-suited for a range of disciplines, including search and rescue, police work, service dog roles, and canine sports such as obedience, agility, and herding trials.

Despite their many positive qualities, the Belgian Malinois is not the ideal choice for everyone. Their high energy levels and need for mental stimulation may prove overwhelming for first-time dog owners or those with sedentary lifestyles. These dogs require consistent training, regular exercise, and engaging activities to keep them physically and mentally satisfied.

Ideal Environment

Physical Environment

The Belgian Malinois thrives in an environment that caters to their physical, mental, and social needs. As a highly active and intelligent breed, they require ample space to move and play, making a house with a securely fenced yard an ideal setting. However, they can adapt to living in an apartment or smaller home if provided with sufficient daily exercise and opportunities for mental stimulation.

Climate Adaptability

In terms of climate adaptability, the Belgian Malinois is fairly resilient. Their weather-resistant double coat provides protection against various weather conditions. While they can tolerate cold temperatures, they should not be left outside for extended periods in extreme weather. Providing them with shelter and access to a warm, dry area is crucial during winter months.

Similarly, Malinois can adapt to hot climates, but precautions must be taken to prevent overheating. Always provide your dog with shade and fresh water, and avoid exercising them during the hottest parts of the day. It’s essential to monitor your Malinois for signs of heat stress, such as excessive panting, drooling, or weakness, and take immediate action if needed.

Ideal Owner

The perfect pet parents for a Belgian Malinois are those who are experienced with dogs, active, and committed to providing consistent training and engagement. This breed excels with owners who understand their unique temperament and can offer the structure, guidance, and attention they need to flourish.

Malinois are not well-suited for first-time dog owners or those with a sedentary lifestyle, as they demand a significant investment of time and energy.

Other Pets

When it comes to other pets, the Belgian Malinois can coexist harmoniously with animals they have been raised with or properly introduced to. However, their strong prey drive should be considered when introducing them to smaller animals. Early socialization and training are essential in teaching them appropriate behavior around other pets.

belgian malinois in the snow
Photo: Areson/Pixabay


The Belgian Malinois has a relatively low-maintenance grooming routine compared to many other breeds, making them a more manageable option for busy pet parents. However, regular grooming is still essential to keep their coat healthy and clean, as well as to minimize shedding.

Coat Care

The Malinois has a short, weather-resistant double coat that requires weekly brushing to remove loose hair and distribute the natural oils. During their shedding seasons, which typically occur twice a year, they will need more frequent brushing – every day or every other day – to help control the increased amount of loose hair.

A slicker brush or a grooming rake works well for removing dead hair and maintaining the coat’s health.

Bathing your Belgian Malinois should be done on an as-needed basis. Depending on their activity level and the environment they live in, this may vary from once a month to once every few months. When bathing, use a mild dog shampoo that is specifically designed for canines to avoid irritation. Be sure to rinse thoroughly to remove all soap residue from their coat.

Dental Care

Dental care is an essential component of your Malinois’ grooming routine. Regular teeth brushing using a canine toothpaste and toothbrush will help prevent plaque buildup, gum disease, and bad breath. Ideally, you should brush your dog’s teeth daily, but if this isn’t feasible, aim for at least two to three times per week. In addition to brushing, providing dental chews or toys can help maintain good oral hygiene.

Nail Trimming

Trimming your Belgian Malinois’ nails is another important aspect of their grooming needs. Overgrown nails can cause discomfort, affect your dog’s gait, and even lead to injuries. As a general rule, you should trim their nails every three to four weeks, depending on how quickly they grow.

A nail clipper or grinder designed for dogs is the best tool for this task. If you are unsure about trimming their nails yourself, seeking assistance from a professional groomer or veterinarian is a good option.

Additional Grooming Tips

Regularly inspecting and cleaning your Malinois’ ears is crucial in preventing infections. Check their ears weekly for any signs of redness, irritation, or a foul odor – these may indicate an infection that requires veterinary attention.

To clean your dog’s ears, use a gentle, dog-specific ear cleaner and a cotton ball or soft cloth. Avoid using cotton swabs, as they can push debris further into the ear canal or damage the delicate inner ear structures.

Finally, it’s essential to keep an eye on your Belgian Malinois’ overall skin and coat health. Regular grooming sessions are an excellent opportunity to check for any skin irritations, lumps, or other concerns that may require veterinary attention.

belgian malinois lying down with a ball in its mouth
Photo: 825545/Pixabay


The Belgian Malinois is a highly energetic and athletic breed with significant exercise needs. Meeting these requirements is crucial for maintaining their physical health, mental well-being, and overall happiness. A well-exercised Malinois is more likely to be a well-behaved and content companion.

Exercise Amount & Types

Daily exercise should consist of at least 1 to 2 hours of physical activity, divided into two or three sessions throughout the day. However, this breed often thrives on even more exercise, depending on the individual dog’s energy levels.

Keep in mind that merely letting them run around in the yard is not enough; Malinois need structured, engaging activities to stay mentally stimulated and physically satisfied.

A variety of exercises can help keep your Belgian Malinois engaged and challenged. Long walks or jogs, hiking, swimming, and playing fetch are excellent options for physical exercise. Incorporating off-leash playtime in a securely fenced area allows your Malinois to expend energy while exploring their surroundings.

In addition to physical exercise, mental stimulation is vital for this intelligent breed. Puzzle toys, scent work games, and obedience training can help keep their minds sharp and focused. Teaching new tricks and commands also provides an excellent opportunity for mental engagement and bonding with your dog.

Dog Sports

The Belgian Malinois excels in various dog sports and competitions, which provide a perfect outlet for their athleticism and intelligence.

Activities such as agility, obedience trials, herding events, tracking, and rally offer both physical and mental challenges that cater to the breed’s natural talents and instincts. Participation in these events can deepen the bond between you and your Malinois while showcasing their impressive abilities.

Exercise Precautions

It’s essential to monitor your Belgian Malinois for signs of fatigue or overexertion during exercise, especially in extreme weather conditions. Always provide access to fresh water and shade, and adjust the intensity and duration of exercise according to your dog’s age, fitness level, and overall health.


Training a Belgian Malinois can be an incredibly rewarding experience due to their high intelligence, eagerness to learn, and strong desire to please their human companions. These traits make them highly trainable and well-suited for various tasks, including obedience, agility, service work, and police or military roles.

When it comes to training a Malinois, consistency and positive reinforcement are key. They respond best to reward-based training methods that utilize praise, treats, or toys as motivation. Harsh training techniques are not recommended, as they may damage the bond between you and your dog and potentially lead to fear or aggression issues.

Begin training your Belgian Malinois as early as possible, ideally during puppyhood. Early socialization and exposure to various people, environments, and situations will help them develop into well-rounded, confident adults. Puppy obedience classes are an excellent way to start building a strong foundation of basic commands and manners.

Malinois have a strong work ethic and enjoy being challenged mentally and physically. Incorporating advanced obedience skills, trick training, or specialized activities like scent work or herding can help keep them engaged and eager to learn. Remember to keep training sessions fun, varied, and stimulating to maintain their interest and enthusiasm.

One potential challenge when training a Belgian Malinois is their incredible energy and drive, which can sometimes manifest as stubbornness or impatience. It’s essential to remain patient, calm, and consistent in your approach, reinforcing desired behaviors while redirecting or ignoring unwanted ones.

Regular exercise and mental stimulation will also help channel their energy in a positive direction, making them more focused and receptive to training.

Another aspect to consider is that the Belgian Malinois is a sensitive breed, meaning they can be highly attuned to their handler’s emotions and reactions. Maintaining a positive, confident demeanor during training sessions will help your dog feel more secure and willing to learn.

belgian malinois running
Photo: Sansargo/Getty Images

Diet & Nutrition 

The Belgian Malinois requires a well-balanced and nutritious diet to support their high energy levels, maintain optimal health, and promote overall well-being.

What to Feed & How Much

When selecting food for your Malinois, choose a high-quality product that follows the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) guidelines. These guidelines ensure that the food meets the necessary nutritional standards for a balanced canine diet.

There are various types of dog food available on the market, including dry kibble, wet food, and raw food diets. Each has its advantages and drawbacks, so it’s essential to research and consult with your veterinarian to determine which option is best suited for your Malinois’ specific needs, age, and activity level.

The amount of food your Belgian Malinois requires will depend on their age, weight, activity level, and overall health. Puppies typically need more frequent, smaller meals to support their growth and development, while adult dogs may do well on two meals per day.

It is crucial to follow the feeding guidelines provided by the dog food manufacturer and adjust the portion size according to your dog’s individual needs.

Active, working Malinois may require a higher calorie intake to fuel their energy levels, while less active or older dogs may need fewer calories to prevent weight gain. Monitoring your dog’s body condition and weight, as well as consulting with your veterinarian, will help you determine the appropriate amount of food for your Malinois.


Treats can be an essential tool for training and rewarding your Belgian Malinois, but they should be given in moderation. Treats should not make up more than 10% of your dog’s daily caloric intake, as excessive treats can lead to obesity and other health issues. Opt for healthy, low-calorie treats, or consider using small pieces of your dog’s regular kibble as a reward during training sessions.


Fresh water should always be readily available to your Belgian Malinois. Ensure they have access to clean, fresh water at all times, and check the water bowl regularly throughout the day to refill as needed.


The Belgian Malinois is generally a healthy and robust breed with a life expectancy of 14 to 16 years. However, like all breeds, they can be predisposed to certain health issues. Regular veterinary check-ups, proper diet, exercise, and grooming can help maintain their overall health and well-being.

Here are common health issues associated with the Belgian Malinois breed:

Hip Dysplasia: This is a genetic condition where the hip joint doesn’t develop correctly, leading to arthritis and mobility issues over time. Responsible breeding practices and screening for hip dysplasia can help reduce the risk of this condition in the breed. Maintaining a healthy weight and providing appropriate exercise can also help manage symptoms if your Malinois is affected.

Elbow Dysplasia: Similar to hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia is a developmental abnormality that affects the elbow joint, causing pain, lameness, and arthritis. Early diagnosis and intervention, such as weight management, physical therapy, or surgery, can help improve the quality of life for affected dogs.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA): PRA is an inherited eye disorder that causes the gradual degeneration of the retina, eventually leading to blindness. Regular eye exams and responsible breeding practices can help identify and manage this condition.

Epilepsy: Belgian Malinois may be prone to epilepsy, a neurological disorder that causes seizures. If your Malinois experiences seizures, it’s crucial to consult with your veterinarian to determine the appropriate course of treatment and management.

Allergies: The breed can be susceptible to allergies, which may present as skin irritation, itching, or gastrointestinal issues. Identifying the allergen, whether environmental or food-related and implementing a tailored management plan can help alleviate symptoms.

In addition to these common health concerns, it’s essential to provide your Belgian Malinois with routine preventive care, including vaccinations, parasite control, and dental care. Regular veterinary check-ups will help monitor your dog’s health and catch any potential issues early.

By being aware of these common health issues and providing appropriate care, you can help ensure your Belgian Malinois enjoys a long, healthy, and happy life as your loyal companion.

two belgian malinois on a bridge
Photo: Sergeyryumin/Getty Images


The Belgian Malinois is one of four Belgian herding breeds that originated in the late 1800s, along with the Belgian Tervuren, the Belgian Laekenois, and the Belgian Sheepdog (also known as the Groenendael).

All four breeds share a similar ancestry but differ primarily in coat type and color. The Belgian Malinois is named after the city of Malines in Belgium, where it was first developed as a working dog.

During the late 19th century, there was a growing interest in developing distinct Belgian herding breeds. In 1891, a group of enthusiasts, including veterinarian Adolphe Reul, formed the Club du Chien de Berger Belge to study and promote these native herding dogs. They began by identifying local shepherd dogs with consistent traits and breeding them to refine their appearance and working abilities.

The first breed standard for the Belgian Shepherd Dog was written in 1892, which included all four varieties under the same name. However, it wasn’t until 1901 that the Belgian Malinois was officially recognized as a separate variety within the Belgian Shepherd Dog breed.

The Malinois quickly gained popularity for its intelligence, work ethic, and versatility, making it a top choice for herding, police work, and military service.

Belgian Malinois was first imported to the United States in the early 20th century, and the breed was officially recognized by the American Kennel Club (AKC) in 1959. Initially, the Malinois was registered under the same classification as the Belgian Sheepdog, but it was later separated into its own breed category within the AKC’s Herding Group.

In popular culture, the Belgian Malinois has garnered attention for its remarkable abilities in various working roles.

Their exceptional athleticism, intelligence, and trainability have made them a sought-after breed for military and police work worldwide. Malinois have been involved in numerous high-profile missions, such as the raid that led to the capture of Osama bin Laden in 2011. Their success in these roles has increased their visibility and popularity, both as working dogs and as pets.

The breed has also made appearances in film and television, often portraying police or military dogs. In the 2015 film “Max,” a Belgian Malinois plays the titular character, a military working dog who returns to the United States after experiencing trauma on the battlefield. The breed has also been featured in TV shows like “Person of Interest” and “SEAL Team.”

Parent Club

The official parent club for the Belgian Malinois in the United States is the American Belgian Malinois Club (ABMC). Founded in 1978, the ABMC is dedicated to promoting the health, welfare, and responsible breeding of the Belgian Malinois.

The club serves as a valuable resource for breed information, activities, events, and education for Malinois enthusiasts. To learn more about the American Belgian Malinois Club, visit their website here.

two belgian malinois puppies in the backyard
Photo: Kurt Pas/Getty Images

Breed Standard

A breed standard is a set of guidelines established by breed clubs or kennel organizations, defining the ideal appearance, temperament, and physical traits of a specific breed. 

It serves as a reference for breeders, judges, and enthusiasts to evaluate and maintain a breed’s unique qualities. Covering aspects like size, appearance, and temperament, breed standards are used in dog shows and competitions to assess individual dogs against the ideal representation of their breed.

You can check the Belgian Malinois’ breed standard set by the American Kennel Club (AKC) here.


Considering welcoming a Belgian Malinois into your life? Start by preparing a sturdy bed, nutritious food, challenging toys, grooming essentials, and finding a reputable vet.

If you’re thinking of buying, it’s crucial to select a trustworthy breeder to ensure a healthy, well-socialized pup. But have you thought about rescue? Many Malinois dogs in shelters are waiting to share their energetic spirit and keen intelligence with a new family. The American Kennel Club and the American Belgian Malinois Club can guide you through this fulfilling journey.

Whether you adopt or buy, you’re not just getting a pet. You’re inviting an active, intelligent companion into your life. With a Belgian Malinois, every day is an adventure filled with endurance, loyalty, and the joy of having a dog that’s as protective as it is affectionate!


Are Belgian Malinois friendly?

Belgian Malinois can be friendly and affectionate with their family members, but they may be reserved around strangers. Early socialization and consistent training are crucial for developing a well-rounded, sociable dog.

Are Belgian Malinois aggressive?

While not inherently aggressive, Belgian Malinois have a strong protective instinct and may display guarding behaviors. Proper socialization, training, and providing a structured environment can help prevent or manage any aggressive tendencies.

What makes the Belgian Malinois so special?

The Belgian Malinois is known for its incredible intelligence, athleticism, and work ethic. These qualities make them highly trainable and versatile, excelling in various roles such as herding, police work, search and rescue, and dog sports.

Do Belgian Malinois make good family pets?

Belgian Malinois can make excellent family pets for active, experienced dog owners who can provide consistent training, socialization, and ample exercise. However, their high energy and strong work drive may not be suitable for every household.

How much exercise does a Belgian Malinois need?

A Belgian Malinois typically requires at least 1 to 2 hours of structured exercise daily, divided into two or three sessions. This breed thrives on engaging activities like long walks, hiking, swimming, and playing fetch.

Do Belgian Malinois shed?

Yes, Belgian Malinois have a short, dense coat that sheds moderately throughout the year and more heavily during seasonal shedding periods. Regular brushing can help minimize shedding and keep their coat healthy.

Are Belgian Malinois good with other dogs?

Belgian Malinois can get along well with other dogs if properly socialized from a young age. However, their high energy and herding instincts may cause them to be overly assertive or playful with other dogs. Supervised interactions and proper introductions are essential to ensure harmony between your Malinois and other dogs.

Fun Facts

  • Belgian Malinois are highly versatile and adaptable. They’re not just your average house pet; they excel in a variety of roles, from police and military work to herding and obedience competitions. They’ve even been spotted on the big screen! These dogs are truly the Jack-of-all-trades in the canine world.
  • Unlike many large breed dogs who rarely live past 10 or 12 years, Belgian Malinois are notably healthy and long-lived. With a balanced diet, regular exercise, and proper veterinary care, they can enjoy a robust lifespan, often reaching up to 14 years or more. It’s an impressive feat for a dog of their size!

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