Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

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cavalier king charles spaniel portrait
Meet the enchanting Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, a breed that masterfully blends royal grace with a fun-loving disposition! These captivating canines are adored for their soulful eyes, luxurious coats, and warm personalities.

Join us in this comprehensive guide as we explore everything you need to know about this breed, including their appearance, temperament, ideal environment, grooming, exercise requirements, training tips, dietary needs, health concerns, history, and more.

Best For

The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is the perfect pet for those seeking a gentle, affectionate companion. Their adaptable nature makes them fit well into various lifestyles, from city living to country life. Ideal for families, seniors, and singles alike, they bring a touch of royal charm to any home.


OFFICIAL NAMECavalier King Charles Spaniel
ORIGINUnited Kingdom
HEIGHT12-13 inches
WEIGHT13-18 lbs
LIFESPAN12-15 years
cavalier king charles spaniel sitting on a sidewalk
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The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is the epitome of a small, elegant dog with an air of royalty. This breed carries an undeniable charm that captivates everyone who encounters them.

A Cavalier’s height typically ranges from 12 to 13 inches, making them perfectly proportioned for cuddles on the couch. As for their weight, they usually tip the scales between 13 to 18 pounds. This manageable size adds to their appeal as a companion pet.

The first thing you’ll notice about a Cavalier is their expressive eyes. Big, round, and dark, their eyes are often described as “melting,” exuding warmth, friendliness, and intelligence. They have a knack for making direct eye contact, creating a sense of deep connection with their human companions.

Cavaliers have a distinctive head with a slightly rounded skull. The space between their ears is flat, and their muzzle is well tapered. Their ears are a standout feature – long, set high, and adorned with feathers. They hang down close to their heads and frame their faces beautifully.

Their body is compact yet well-proportioned, with a straight back and a chest that’s moderately deep. They hold their tail in line with their back, wagging it enthusiastically when they’re happy. The tail is often fringed with the same silky hair that covers the rest of their body.

Speaking of hair, the Cavalier’s coat is one of its most magnificent features. It’s long, silky, and can be slightly wavy. This breed doesn’t have an undercoat, but they do have feathering on their ears, legs, tail, and abdomen. They come in four recognized color patterns: Blenheim (chestnut and white), Tricolor (black, white, and tan), Black and Tan, and Ruby.

Overall, the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel embodies grace and affability. Their regal appearance combined with their endearing expression makes them irresistible.

cavalier king charles spaniel on green grass
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The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is a breed that carries an air of nobility, without an ounce of arrogance. This charming little dog is the epitome of a companion breed – friendly, gentle, and always eager to please.

One of the most endearing qualities of Cavaliers is their deep sense of attachment to their human family. They thrive on companionship and are happiest when they’re part of the family’s day-to-day activities. This isn’t the type of breed that prefers the solitude of a backyard; rather, they’d much prefer to be snuggled up on your lap or tagging along on a family outing.

Their love for people goes beyond just their family – Cavaliers are sociable dogs who generally get along well with strangers, children, and even other animals. Their outgoing nature is complemented by a playful spirit, which can often lead to amusing antics that will keep you entertained for hours.

Despite their playful side, Cavaliers are known for their even temperament. They’re not easily agitated and tend to remain calm in situations that may stress other breeds. This makes them a good fit for families with young children, as they’re patient and gentle with little ones.

Intelligence is another trait that shines in the Cavalier breed. These dogs are smart and curious, always eager to explore their surroundings and learn something new. However, their intelligence isn’t paired with stubbornness, which can sometimes be the case with other breeds. Instead, Cavaliers are quite cooperative and quick to learn.

One aspect of the Cavalier’s personality that owners often highlight is their expressive eyes. They have large, round, and dark eyes that seem to convey a wide range of emotions – from joy and excitement to empathy and understanding. It’s as if they understand what you’re feeling and are there to offer comfort or share in your happiness.

While the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is undeniably sweet-tempered and playful, it’s important to remember that they also have a sensitive side. They don’t respond well to harsh treatment or punishment and are happiest when treated with kindness and respect.

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Ideal Environment

The ideal environment for a Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is one that provides ample opportunities for companionship, socialization, and moderate exercise.

Ideal Owner

Cavaliers flourish with pet parents who can provide consistent companionship, as they crave human interaction and do not like being left alone for extended periods. Families, singles, and seniors who can dedicate time to bonding, cuddling, and engaging in interactive activities will find a loyal and loving companion in this breed. First-time dog owners can also benefit from the Cavalier’s eager-to-please nature and relative ease of training.

Other Pets

The breed’s sociable temperament makes it an excellent addition to multi-pet households, where they can enjoy the company of other dogs and even cats. Early socialization and proper introductions will help ensure harmonious relationships between pets.

Physical Environment

These adaptable dogs thrive in various living situations, from apartments to spacious homes, as long as they have access to a secure outdoor area for play and exploration. Their moderate size and activity level make them well-suited for both urban and rural settings.

Climate Adaptability

Although Cavaliers are adaptable, it is crucial to consider their sensitivity to extreme temperatures. Their luxurious coat offers some protection against cold weather, but it is not sufficient for prolonged exposure to frigid temperatures. During colder months, pet parents should limit outdoor time and consider providing their Cavalier with a coat or sweater for added warmth.

On the other hand, the breed is also susceptible to overheating in hot climates. In warm weather, it’s essential to provide ample shade, fresh water, and a cool resting area for your Cavalier. Avoid exercising them during the hottest parts of the day, and watch for signs of heatstroke, such as excessive panting, drooling, and lethargy.

two cavalier king charles spaniels sitting at a park
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The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel’s luxurious coat and elegant appearance require regular grooming to keep them looking their best and maintain optimal health. Although their grooming needs are not overly demanding, it’s essential to establish a consistent routine to ensure the breed’s coat stays clean, tangle-free, and comfortable.

Coat Care

One of the primary aspects of grooming for a Cavalier is coat care. Their long, silky hair is prone to tangling and matting, so it’s crucial to brush them at least two to three times a week using a slicker brush and a metal comb.

Start by brushing the coat with the slicker brush to remove loose hair and any small tangles, then follow up with the metal comb to ensure all knots are removed. Pay particular attention to areas where matting is common, such as behind the ears, under the legs, and around the tail.

Cavaliers have feathering on their ears, chest, legs, and tail, which adds to their regal appearance but also requires extra attention during grooming. To prevent tangles in these areas, gently comb through the feathering with a metal comb or a pin brush. If you encounter a stubborn mat, try using a dematting tool or spray to help loosen it without causing discomfort.

Bathing your Cavalier every four to six weeks is sufficient to keep their coat clean and healthy. Use a mild dog shampoo that won’t strip the natural oils from their skin and coat. Be sure to rinse thoroughly to avoid any residue that may cause irritation.

After bathing, towel-dry your dog and use a hairdryer on a low heat setting to dry their coat fully. Brush through the coat during the drying process to prevent tangles.

Dental Care

Dental care is another vital aspect of grooming for Cavaliers, as they can be prone to dental issues like gum disease and tartar buildup. Regular teeth brushing is recommended, ideally daily, but at least two to three times a week. Use a soft-bristled toothbrush and dog-specific toothpaste to clean their teeth gently. Providing dental chews and toys can also help maintain good oral hygiene.

Nail Trimming

Trimming your Cavalier’s nails is necessary to prevent discomfort and potential injuries caused by overgrown nails. Generally, nails should be trimmed every three to four weeks, depending on how quickly they grow.

Use a guillotine-style or scissor-style nail clipper designed for dogs, and be cautious not to cut the quick, the sensitive blood vessel inside the nail. If you’re unsure about trimming their nails yourself, consult with a professional groomer or veterinarian.

Ear Care

Don’t forget to check and clean your Cavalier’s ears regularly, ideally once a week, as their long, pendulous ears can trap moisture and debris, leading to infections. Use a gentle ear-cleaning solution and cotton balls or gauze to wipe the outer ear canal clean. Never insert anything into the ear canal itself.

cavalier king charles spaniel sitting on a park bench
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The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, while considered a small companion breed, has moderate exercise needs to maintain their overall health and happiness. Regular physical activity helps prevent obesity, reduces the risk of certain health issues, and contributes to their mental stimulation.

Exercise Amount & Types

Cavaliers typically enjoy daily walks, which should last around 30 to 45 minutes, depending on your dog’s age, fitness level, and individual preferences. These walks not only provide necessary exercise but also offer an opportunity for socialization and exploration, stimulating their senses and satisfying their natural curiosity.

In addition to walks, Cavaliers appreciate playtime and engaging activities that challenge their minds and bodies. Interactive games, such as fetch, tug-of-war, or hide-and-seek, can be enjoyable for both you and your dog. Puzzle toys and treat-dispensing toys are excellent options for providing mental stimulation during indoor play sessions.

Dog Sports

Cavaliers can also excel in various dog sports and competitions, such as agility, obedience, rally, and flyball. Participation in these activities can be a fun and rewarding way to bond with your dog while keeping them physically and mentally engaged.

Exercise Precautions

It’s important to remember that exercise needs may vary between individual dogs, so it’s essential to observe your Cavalier’s energy levels and adjust their activity accordingly. Puppies and senior dogs may have different exercise requirements than young, active adults, so always consider your dog’s age, health, and personal preferences when planning their exercise routine.

When exercising your Cavalier, especially during hot weather, be mindful of their sensitivity to heat. Avoid strenuous activities during the hottest parts of the day, provide ample shade and fresh water, and watch for signs of overheating or heatstroke.

cavalier king charles spaniel sitting on the road during sunset
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Training a Cavalier King Charles Spaniel can be an enjoyable and rewarding experience, as they are known for their intelligence, eagerness to please, and affectionate nature. These qualities contribute to their trainability, making them suitable for first-time dog owners and experienced trainers alike.

Cavaliers typically respond well to positive reinforcement training methods, which involve rewarding desired behaviors with praise, treats, or toys. This approach helps to strengthen the bond between you and your dog while promoting a positive attitude towards learning.

It’s important to begin training and socialization early in your Cavalier’s life to establish good habits and build a foundation for future learning.

Consistency is key when training a Cavalier, as they can be sensitive to changes in their environment or routine. Establish clear expectations and maintain a regular training schedule to help your dog understand what is expected of them. Additionally, keeping training sessions short and engaging will help hold their attention and prevent boredom or frustration.

Cavaliers can excel in various canine activities, such as obedience, agility, and rally, thanks to their intelligence and adaptability. Their friendly demeanor also makes them excellent candidates for therapy work, visiting hospitals, nursing homes, and schools to provide comfort and companionship.

While Cavaliers are generally easy to train, they may occasionally display stubbornness or selective hearing. In these instances, patience and persistence are vital. Avoid using harsh corrections or punishment, as this can damage the trusting relationship between you and your dog. Instead, remain calm and use positive reinforcement to encourage desired behaviors.

Socialization is an essential aspect of training for Cavaliers, as it helps shape a well-rounded, confident, and friendly dog. Expose your Cavalier to various people, animals, and environments from a young age to foster positive associations and prevent fear or aggression.

cavalier king charles spaniel lying down on the grass
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Diet & Nutrition 

A balanced and nutritious diet is essential for the overall health and well-being of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels.

What to Feed & How Much

To ensure they receive all the necessary nutrients, it’s recommended to choose high-quality dog food that follows the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) guidelines. The type of food can be dry, wet, or raw, depending on your preference and your dog’s specific needs.

When determining how much to feed your Cavalier, consider factors such as age, weight, activity level, and overall health.

Puppies generally require more frequent meals, ideally 3 to 4 times a day, to support their rapid growth and development. As they grow older, the number of meals can be reduced to twice daily. Always consult your veterinarian for specific feeding recommendations tailored to your dog’s individual needs.

For adult Cavaliers, portion sizes can vary based on activity levels. An average adult Cavalier with a moderate activity level may require approximately 1 to 1.5 cups of dry food per day, divided into two meals. Highly active dogs or those with specific dietary requirements might need adjustments to their portion sizes.

It’s important to monitor your dog’s weight and adjust their food intake accordingly to prevent obesity, which can lead to various health issues.

Lastly, be vigilant for any signs of food allergies or sensitivities, such as itching, digestive issues, or skin problems. If you suspect your Cavalier has a food allergy or intolerance, consult your veterinarian, who may recommend an elimination diet to identify the specific allergen.


Treats are an excellent tool for training and rewarding good behavior, but they should be given in moderation, as excessive treats can contribute to weight gain. Opt for healthy, low-calorie treats, and remember to account for treat calories when calculating your dog’s total daily caloric intake.


Fresh water should always be available for your Cavalier to keep them hydrated throughout the day. Regularly clean and refill their water bowl to ensure they have access to clean water at all times.

cavalier king charles spaniel running
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The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel has a life expectancy of approximately 12 to 15 years. Like all breeds, they are susceptible to specific health issues, some of which are genetic in nature.

Here are common health issues associated with the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel:

Mitral Valve Disease (MVD): MVD is a prevalent heart condition in Cavaliers, where the mitral valve degenerates, leading to heart murmurs and, eventually, congestive heart failure. Regular heart screenings by a veterinarian can help monitor your dog’s heart health and manage the condition if diagnosed.

Syringomyelia (SM): SM is a neurological disorder caused by a malformation of the skull, resulting in a fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord. This condition can cause pain, discomfort, and various neurological symptoms. Early diagnosis and treatment, such as medication or surgery, can help manage this condition in affected dogs.

Hip Dysplasia: This genetic condition occurs when the hip joint doesn’t develop correctly, leading to arthritis and mobility issues. Maintaining a healthy weight and providing joint supplements can help prevent or manage hip dysplasia in Cavaliers.

Patellar Luxation: This orthopedic issue involves the kneecap slipping out of its proper position, causing pain and lameness. Mild cases can be managed with conservative treatments, while more severe cases may require surgery.

Eye Issues: Cavaliers can be prone to various eye problems, such as cataracts, retinal dysplasia, and dry eye syndrome. Regular eye exams and prompt treatment can help maintain your Cavalier’s vision and eye health.

In addition to these common health risks, Cavaliers can also be susceptible to ear infections due to their long, pendulous ears. Regular ear cleaning and monitoring for signs of infection can help prevent more severe issues.

To minimize the risk of genetic health problems, it’s essential to choose a reputable breeder who conducts appropriate health testing on their breeding dogs. Providing your Cavalier with a balanced diet, regular exercise, and routine veterinary care can also contribute to their overall well-being and longevity.

By staying vigilant about your dog’s health and addressing any concerns promptly, you can help ensure that your Cavalier enjoys a long, happy life by your side.

cavalier king charles spaniel walking at a park on summer day
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The history of the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel can be traced back to the late 16th and early 17th centuries when small toy spaniels were highly favored by the British nobility.

These charming dogs were named after King Charles II, who was particularly fond of the breed and owned several during his reign. The breed’s royal connections extend beyond King Charles II, as they were also popular among other monarchs, including Queen Victoria and Queen Mary.

Toy spaniels were not only cherished companions but also served practical purposes, such as warming laps and attracting fleas away from their owners, thus reducing the risk of the plague. Their friendly temperament and affectionate nature made them ideal companions for both adults and children, and they quickly became a symbol of wealth and status.

Over time, the appearance of these toy spaniels began to change due to crossbreeding with other breeds, such as the Pug and Japanese Chin. By the mid-1800s, the original toy spaniel had almost disappeared, replaced by a flatter-faced, shorter-nosed dog known as the English Toy Spaniel or King Charles Spaniel in the United States.

In the early 20th century, an American named Roswell Eldridge offered a cash prize at the Crufts Dog Show for the best examples of the original toy spaniel, which he described as having a longer muzzle and rounder skull. This sparked a renewed interest in the breed, leading to the establishment of the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel as a separate breed from the English Toy Spaniel.

A group of dedicated breeders, led by Mostyn Walker, worked diligently to recreate the original toy spaniel by selectively breeding dogs with characteristics resembling those depicted in historic paintings and artwork. In 1928, the first breed club was established in the United Kingdom, and the breed standard was defined soon after.

The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel continued to gain popularity in Europe and was officially recognized by the Kennel Club in the UK in 1945. The breed made its way to the United States in the 1950s, and the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Club, USA, was formed in 1956. The American Kennel Club (AKC) officially recognized the breed in 1995, and it has since become a beloved companion and show dog in the United States.

In popular culture, the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel has made numerous appearances in movies, television shows, and literature. Their friendly demeanor, expressive eyes, and regal bearing have made them a favorite subject for artists throughout history, including famous painters such as Van Dyck, Gainsborough, and Landseer.

Parent Club

The official parent club for the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel in the United States is the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Club, USA (CKCSC, USA).

Established in 1956, the club is dedicated to promoting and protecting the interests of the breed through education, responsible breeding practices, and maintaining the breed standard. The official website for the CKCSC, USA can be accessed here.

Breed Standard

A breed standard is a set of guidelines established by breed clubs or kennel organizations, defining the ideal appearance, temperament, and physical traits of a specific breed. 

It serves as a reference for breeders, judges, and enthusiasts to evaluate and maintain a breed’s unique qualities. Covering aspects like size, appearance, and temperament, breed standards are used in dog shows and competitions to assess individual dogs against the ideal representation of their breed.

You can check the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel’s breed standard set by the American Kennel Club (AKC) here.

cavalier king charles spaniel puppies
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Bringing a Cavalier King Charles Spaniel home is a joyous occasion. Before you do, there are some key considerations. If you choose to buy, ensure you’re dealing with a reputable breeder. They’ll provide health clearances for the puppy’s parents, ensuring your future pet is healthy.

However, consider rescuing as a fulfilling alternative to buying. There are many lovable Cavaliers in shelters waiting for a forever home. The American Kennel Club and the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Club, USA can help guide you through the rescue process.

Before bringing your new friend home, prepare a comfy bed, nutritious food, toys, and schedule a vet visit. Remember, your Cavalier needs love and companionship more than anything. So, gear up for endless cuddles and a constant, wiggly shadow. Your life is about to get a whole lot brighter!


Is the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel breed expensive?

The initial cost of a Cavalier King Charles Spaniel can be relatively high, with prices ranging from $1,500 to $3,500 or more, depending on factors such as breeder reputation, location, and lineage. In addition to the purchase price, owners should also consider ongoing costs such as food, grooming, training, and veterinary care.

Are Cavalier King Charles Spaniels smart?

Yes, Cavaliers are intelligent dogs with a natural ability to learn quickly. Their eagerness to please and affectionate nature make them highly trainable and adaptable to various situations and environments.

Are Cavalier King Charles Spaniels calm dogs?

Cavaliers are generally known for their gentle and calm demeanor. While they do have moments of playfulness and energy, they are typically relaxed and content to snuggle with their owners. Their calm disposition makes them excellent companions for individuals and families alike.

What are the disadvantages of owning a Cavalier King Charles Spaniel?

Some potential disadvantages of owning a Cavalier include their predisposition to certain health issues, such as mitral valve disease (MVD) and syringomyelia (SM). Additionally, they require regular grooming to maintain a healthy coat and may not be suitable for individuals with severe allergies due to their moderate shedding.

Do Cavalier King Charles Spaniels bark a lot?

Cavaliers are not known to be excessive barkers, but they may bark occasionally to alert their owners of visitors or when they’re seeking attention. Early training and socialization can help prevent excessive barking and ensure a well-mannered companion.

Can Cavalier King Charles Spaniels be left alone for long periods?

While Cavaliers are adaptable and can tolerate being left alone for short periods, they are a companion breed and thrive on human interaction. Prolonged periods of isolation can lead to separation anxiety or boredom, which may result in destructive behaviors. It’s essential to provide adequate companionship, mental stimulation, and exercise for your Cavalier.

Do Cavalier King Charles Spaniels have a strong prey drive?

Cavaliers have a relatively low prey drive compared to other breeds, but individual dogs may still show an interest in chasing smaller animals such as squirrels or birds. Early training and socialization can help manage this instinct and prevent unwanted behaviors during walks or outdoor playtime.

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